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bacon's rebellion definition

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"[23] No record of the king's comments have been found; the origin of the story appears to have been colonial myth that arose at least 30 years after the events; the king prided himself on the clemency he had shown to his father's enemies. By 1670, they had driven most of the Doeg out of the Virginia colony and into Maryland—apart from those living beside the Nanzatico/Portobago in Caroline County, Virginia. [11][13] They encamped at Warner Hall, home of the speaker of the House of Burgesses, Augustine Warner Jr. and caused considerable damage, although the house was left standing. After much begging from the small group of angered former and current servants, Bacon agreed to help them. Harper & Row, Publishers (New York: 1968.) [6] Government forces arrived soon after and spent several years defeating pockets of resistance and reforming the colonial government to be once more under direct crown control. Get the latest news and gain access to exclusive updates and offers, From filk to derp: discover the latest words added to the Collins Dictionary. [24] Berkeley left his wife, Frances Berkeley, in Virginia and returned to England; she sent a letter to let him know that the current governor was making a bet that the king would refuse to receive him. [14], Before an English naval squadron led by Thomas Larimore[15] could arrive to aid Berkeley and his forces, Bacon died from dysentery on October 26. In 1676, Bacon led a group of However, in the past few decades, based on findings from a more distant viewpoint, historians have come to understand Bacon's Rebellion as a power struggle between two stubborn, selfish leaders rather than a glorious fight against tyranny. They responded by hardening the racial caste of slavery in an attempt to divide the two races from subsequent united uprisings with the passage of the Virginia Slave Codes of 1705. It was the first rebellion in the American Colonies in which the frontiersmen took part. Modified entries © 2019 "Bacon's Rebellion, the Grievances of the People, and the Political Culture of Seventeenth-Century Virginia,", Thompson, Peter. by Penguin Random House LLC and HarperCollins Publishers Ltd. In 1676, Governor Sir William Berkeley was challenged by Nathaniel Bacon for political control of Jamestown. The 71-year-old governor Berkeley returned to the burned capital and a looted home at the end of January 1677. The Indentured servants had had enough. We have almost 200 lists of words from topics as varied as types of butterflies, jackets, currencies, vegetables and knots! [32], According to the Historic Jamestowne National Park website, "For many years, historians considered the Virginia Rebellion of 1676 to be the first stirring of revolutionary sentiment in [North] America, which culminated in the American Revolution almost exactly one hundred years later. The most idolizing portrait of Bacon is found in Torchbearer of the Revolution (1940) by Thomas Jefferson Wertenbaker, which one scholar in 2011 called "one of the worst books on Virginia that a reputable scholarly historian ever published. When Bacon arrived, Berkeley gave him land and a seat on the council.Bacon’s privilege aside, life in Virginia was harsh, filled with drought, starvation, and fighting with Native Americans. Restrictions on the right to vote — the institution of a new land ownership requirement He tricked his way into the garrison of the rebellion, and promised to pardon everyone involved once they got back onto the ship. Wesley Frank Craven in the 1968 publication The Colonies in Transition argues that Berkeley's greatest failings took place during the revolt, near the end of his life. [2][3][4] While the farmers did not succeed in their initial goal of driving the Native Americans from Virginia, the rebellion resulted in Berkeley being recalled to England. Historians believe the rebellion hastened the hardening of racial lines associated with slavery, as a way for planters and the colony to control some of the poor. Most material © 2005, 1997, 1991 by Penguin Random House LLC. [5], Thousands of Virginians from all classes (including those in indentured servitude) and races rose up in arms against Berkeley, chasing him from Jamestown and ultimately torching the settlement. New Year’s Eve is traditionally when we fix our gaze firmly forward in hope, having cast a backward glance at the year just ended. Also it hastened the hardening of racial lines dealing with slavery because this rebellion involved both black and white indentured servants which worried the ruling class. Outnumbered, Berkeley retreated across the river. Bacon's Rebellion is Virginia's leading politically non-aligned portal for news, opinions and analysis about state, regional and local public policy. Bacon's Rebellion occurred in Jamestown, Virginia. Taxes were reduced in the colonies. Bacon's Rebellion: Meaning and Definition of. Right after the discovery and colonization of the New World, the settlers, who had come vying after gold and riches, soon discovered that despite the very obvious lack of gold in this new land, it was rich in something else. "[33], Nonetheless, many in the early United States, including Thomas Jefferson, saw Bacon as a patriot and believed that Bacon's Rebellion truly was a prelude to the later American Revolution against the control of the Crown. Bacon's men captured and burned to the ground the colonial capital on September 19. On the other hand, Bacon’s rebellion also did some good for different races. 1 In 1676 an uprising known as Bacon's Rebellion occurred in Virginia. [26], Historians question whether the rebellion by Bacon against Berkeley in 1676 had any lasting significance for the more-successful revolution a century later. [7], When Sir William Berkeley refused to retaliate against the Native Americans, farmers gathered around at the report of a new raiding party. Resentment of an alien race might be more powerful than resentment of an upper class. He seized the property of several rebels for the colony and executed 23 men by hanging,[1] including the former governor of the Albemarle Sound colony, William Drummond, and the collector of customs, Giles Bland. However, in the past few decades, based on findings from a more distant viewpoint, historians have come to und… Bacon's Rebellion was a rebellion that occurred in 1676 by Virginia settlers. If a court or a group in authority impeaches a president or other senior official, it charges them with committing a crime which makes them unfit for office. His forces defeated the small pockets of insurgents spread across the Tidewater. It actually unified different races and economic classes. The uprising was triggered in 1676 when a grab for Native American lands was denied. Bacon's Rebellion was a conflict, which occurred in Jamestown, VA, some people believe to be the first act of colonial defiance leading up to the American Revolution. However, once they were safely in the hold, he turned the ship's guns on them and disarmed the rebellion. Bacons rebellion definition an unsuccessful uprising by frontiersmen in virginia in 1676 led by nathaniel bacon against the colonial government in jamestown. Exact Definition of Bacon's Rebellion Nathaniel Bacon and William Berkeley were involved in Bacon's Rebellion. A man named Nathaniel Bacon stepped up for the rights of the servants. Rather than singing Bacon's praises and chastising Berkeley's tyranny, Washburn found the roots of the rebellion in the colonists' intolerable demand to "authorize the slaughter and dispossession of the innocent as well as the guilty. [20] His wife described Green Spring in a letter to her cousin: It looked like one of those the boys pull down at Shrovetide, and was almost as much to repair as if it had been new to build, and no sign that ever there had been a fence around it...[21], Bacon's wealthy landowning followers returned their loyalty to the Virginia government after Bacon's death. The governor, however, refused to yield to the pressure. Against Berkeley's orders, the group struck south until they came to the Occaneechi people. Read more about us here . The colony's disorganized frontier political structure, combined with accumulating grievances, helped to motivate a popular uprising against Berkeley, who had failed to address the demands of the colonists regarding their safety. However, William Berkeley died as soon as he landed in England. Bacon's followers used the rebellion as an effort to gain government recognition of the shared interests among all social classes of the colony in protecting the "commonality" and advancing its welfare. by Charles Andrews, in, John Berry, Francis Moryson, and Herbert Jefferys, "A True Narrative of the Rise, Progress and Cessation of the Late Rebellion in Virginia, Most Humbly and Impartially Recorded by His Majesties Commissioners, Appointed to inquire into the Affairs of the Said Colony." Donate to Bacon’s Rebellion Seeing that the governor would not be moved, Bacon then had his men take aim at the assembled burgesses, who quickly granted Bacon his commission. In July 1666, the colonists declared war on them. "[31], James Rice's 2012 narrative Tales from a Revolution: Bacon's Rebellion and the Transformation of Early America, whose emphasis on Bacon's flaws echoes The Governor and the Rebel, integrates the rebellion into a larger story emphasizing the actions of multiple Native Americans, as well as placing it in the context of politics in Europe; in this telling, the climax of Bacon's Rebellion comes with the "Glorious Revolution" of 1688/89. Essay on Bacons Rebellion 751 Words | 4 Pages. In 1676 a major rebellion erupted across Virginia in which citizens chose to follow Nathaniel Bacon, the rebel leader, or Governor Sir William Berkeley, the crown’s representative in the colony. Bacon's Rebellion played a vital role in defining the United States present. 2: The Origins of Racial Oppression in Anglo-America. Bacon's Rebellion was an armed rebellion held by Virginia settlers that took place in 1675 through 1676. Our new online dictionaries for schools provide a safe and appropriate environment for children. Thomas Grantham, captain of the ship Concord cruising the York River,[18] used cunning and force to disarm the rebels. an unsuccessful uprising by frontiersmen in Virginia in 1676, led by Nathaniel Bacon against the colonial government in Jamestown. Bacon's Rebellion was triggered when a grab for Native American lands was denied. "Lethal Encounters: Englishmen and Indians in Colonial Virginia" (University of Nebraska Press, 2011), Rice, James D. "Bacon's Rebellion in Indian Country,", Tarter, Brent. "[28], More nuanced approaches on Berkeley's supposed tyranny or mismanagement entertained specialist historians throughout the middle of the century, leading to a diversification of factors responsible for Virginia's contemporary instability. In the end, Nathaniel Bacon tried to end the disharmony and discontent among the plantation farmers. [8], The recomposed House of Burgesses enacted a number of sweeping reforms (known as Bacon's Laws). Seventeenth-Century America, pp. "The fear of civil war among whites frightened Virginia's ruling elite, who took steps to consolidate power and improve their image: for example, restoration of property qualifications for voting, reducing taxes, and adoption of a more aggressive American Indian policy. This rebellion was even considered to be a personal vendetta between him and Governor Berkeley. The rebellion did not last long after that. Shays ' Rebellion was an armed uprising in Western Massachusetts and Worcester in response to a debt crisis among the citizenry and in opposition to the state government's increased efforts to collect taxes both on individuals and their trades; the fight took place mostly in and around Springfield during 1786 and 1787. Bacon’s Rebellion also impacted the colonies economically. Pronunciation: an unsuccessful uprising by frontiersmen in Virginia in 1676, led by Nathaniel Bacon against the colonial government in Jamestown. [25], Indentured servants both black and white joined the frontier rebellion. noun. Nathaniel Bacon cobbled together a … 90–108. [34][35] This understanding of the conflict was reflected in 20th-century commemorations, including a memorial window in Colonial Williamsburg, and a prominent tablet in the Virginia House of Delegates chamber of the State Capitol in Richmond, which recalls Bacon as "A great Patriot Leader of the Virginia People who died while defending their rights October 26, 1676. The declaration was meant to help him gather support for his rebellion. Upon their return, they discovered that Berkeley had called for new elections to the Burgesses to better address the Native American raids. Virginians did not immediately grasp it. "Bacon's Rebellion, the Grievances of the People, and the Political Culture of Seventeenth-Century Virginia." [29] Bernard Bailyn pushed the novel thesis that it was a question of access to resources, a failure to fully transplant Old World society to New. It was a significant event, since it was the first time the average citizen had demanded his rights in … The other was Nathaniel Bacon, an immature, lazy schemer who was sent to Virginia by his dad in the hopes he would grow up. Most material © 2005, 1997, 1991 by Penguin Random House LLC. What was the significance of Bacon's Rebellion? Bacon's Rebellion was an armed rebellion held by Virginia settlers that took place in 1676. It was the first rebellion in the North American colonies in which discontented frontiersmen took part (a somewhat similar uprising in Maryland involving John Coode and Josias Fendall took place shortly afterward). Engaging an Enemy The rebellion was first suppressed by a few armed merchant ships from London whose captains sided with Berkeley and the loyalists. It was led by Nathaniel Bacon against Colonial Governor William Berkeley. Even though it failed to be successful for the rebels, the event implied some significance for the nation. What led to Bacon's Rebellion? "The Thief, the Householder, and the Commons: Languages of Class in Seventeenth-Century Virginia,", This page was last edited on 15 January 2021, at 02:24. "[27] The central area of debate is Bacon's controversial character and complex disposition, as illustrated by Wilcomb E. Washburn's The Governor and the Rebel (1957). Bacon`s Rebellion. Bacon's Rebellion, popular revolt in colonial Virginia in 1676, led by Nathaniel Bacon. Bailyn, Bernard, "Politics and Social Structure in Virginia." Slaves gathered, raided a firearms shop, and headed south, killing more than 20 white people as they went. During the 1670s, the administration of veteran Virginia governor Sir William Berkeley became unpopular with small farmers and frontiersmen, because of the following reasons: . After convincing the Occaneechi warriors to leave and attack the Susquehannock, Bacon and his men followed by killing most of the Occaneechi men, women, and children remaining at the village. These are reasonable questions, but the fact is that new words do keep entering the language. After getting the Occaneechi to attack the Susquehanock, Bacon and his men followed by killing most of the men, women, and children at the village. (Bacon was not serving his duty in the House; rather, he was at his plantation miles away.) Of course, I'm not talking about the bacon you fry up with your morning eggs; I'm talking about the Virginia colonist named Nathaniel Bacon. Download our English Dictionary apps - available for both iOS and Android. [16][17] John Ingram took over leadership of the rebellion, but many followers drifted away. For many years, historians considered the Virginia Rebellion of 1676 to be the first stirring of revolutionary sentiment in America, which culminated in the American Revolution almost exactly one hundred years later. Upon their return, they discovered that Berkeley had called f… Bacon’s Rebellion was a war between two actual cousins. Bacon's Rebellion all began with a concept called indentured servitude. Through various other tactics, the other rebel garrisons were likewise overcome.[19]. Stono rebellion, large slave uprising on September 9, 1739, near the Stono River, 20 miles southwest of Charleston, South Carolina. https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Bacon%27s_Rebellion&oldid=1000432133, Military history of the Thirteen Colonies, All Wikipedia articles written in American English, Short description is different from Wikidata, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Change in Virginia's Native American-Frontier policy. Bacon's Rebellion was a shocking event that changed the tide of slavery in Virginia and nearby colonies, leading to much harsher environments for slaves. It was the first rebellion in the North American colonies in which discontented frontiersmen took part (a somewhat similar uprising in Maryland involving John Coode and Josias Fendall took place shortly afterward). Amaze your friends with your new-found knowledge! [9], After passage of these laws, Nathaniel Bacon arrived with 500 followers in Jamestown to demand a commission to lead militia against the Native Americans. The Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 119, no. Nathaniel Bacon arrived with a quantity of brandy; after it was distributed, he was elected leader. Governor Berkeley returned to power. [30], Edmund S. Morgan's classic 1975 American Slavery, American Freedom: The Ordeal of Colonial Virginia connected the calamity of Bacon's Rebellion, namely the potential for lower-class revolt, with the colony's transition over to slavery: "But for those with eyes to see, there was an obvious lesson in the rebellion. I don’t know about you, but I’m already salivating at the prospect of Christmas food. Bacon's Rebellion was an armed rebellion in 1676 by Virginia settlers led by Nathaniel Bacon against the rule of Governor William Berkeley. Against Berkeley's orders, the group struck south until they came to the Occaneechi tribe. There was a clear division of groups that also made the rebellion happen. Why do we need to keep adding new words to the English language? Read the document below and answer the analysis questions that follow. Craven, Wesley Frank. [10], On July 30, 1676, Bacon and his army issued the "Declaration of the People". Bacon's Rebellion was probably one of the most confusing yet intriguing chapters in Jamestown's history. "[34][35][36], Robert Beverley reported, in his 1705 book on the history of Virginia, that some soldiers who had been dispatched to Jamestown to quell Bacon's Rebellion gathered and ate leaves of Datura stramonium, and spent eleven days acting in bizarre and foolish ways before recovering. When Bacon had his men take aim at Berkeley, he responded by "baring his breast" to Bacon and told Bacon to shoot him. 1 (2011): 6; Rice, James D. Tales from a Revolution: Bacon's Rebellion and the Transformation of Early America. Read more about us here . It was led by Nathaniel Bacon against Colonial Governor William Berkeley. Bacon had earlier been promised a commission before he retired to his estate if he maintained "good" behavior for two weeks. To illustrate why this happens, let’s look at a cross-section of the words that have been added to the Collins Dictionary this month. One was the heavy-handed English governor, Sir William Berkeley, a veteran of the English civil wars. Bacon's Rebellion is Virginia's leading politically non-aligned portal for news, opinions and analysis about state, regional and local public policy. [37] This led to the plant being known as Jamestown weed, and later jimsonweed. Bacon's Rebellion Summary and Definition: Bacon's Rebellion was an uprising in 1676 - 1677 against American Indians and the colonial government in the Virginia Colony over taking reprisal action for alleged thefts by the Native Americans. The definition of Bacon’s rebellion in US history can be articulated as a led by Nathaniel Bacon uprising of Virginia frontiersmen against the colonial government, which took place in 1676-1677. "[2] Charles II was reported to have commented, "That old fool has put to death more people in that naked country than I did here for the murder of my father. Other articles where Bacon’s Rebellion is discussed: race: The problem of labour in the New World: …percent of the rebels in Bacon’s Rebellion [1676] were Blacks, both servants and freedmen). Bacon's Rebellion Summary and Definition . The alliance between European indentured servants and Africans(a mix of indentured, enslaved, and free blacks) disturbed the colonial upper class. While Bacon was at Jamestown with his small army, eight colonists were killed on the frontier in Henrico County (from where he marched) owing to a lack of manpower on the frontier. When Berkeley refused to go against the Native Americans, farmers gathered around at the report of a new raiding party. Back in the 1600s, the common folks living in Virginia loved Bacon, but the Native Americans and wealthy landowners (aristocrats), including the governor of Virginia, hated Bacon. Colonial America: From Jamestown to Yorktown, "Bacon's Declaration in the Name of the People 30 July 1676", "Bacon's Rebellion in Virginia in the years 1675 & 1676 | Virginia Museum of History & Culture", https://docsouth.unc.edu/southlit/beverley/beverley.html. It leveled several accusations against Berkeley:[12], After months of conflict, Bacon's forces, numbering 300-500 men, moved to Jamestown, besieging the town as it was occupied by Berkeley's forces. It limited the powers of the governor and restored suffrage rights to landless freemen. Most of the slaves were eventually captured and executed. And best of all it's ad free, so sign up now and start using at home or in the classroom. Then the actual reasons of why the rebellion … [11] The declaration criticized Berkeley's administration in detail. Bacon, a colonist and a lawyer of Virginia, met a camp of volunteers to defy the infamous Governor Berkly and begin the rebellion. Primary Source Document Analysis: Below is a document written by Nathaniel Bacon in 1676 called “A People’s Declaration”. Bacon's Rebellion in American English. How did it end and what were the consequences? Seeing them united in a cause alarmed the ruling class. [38], 1675-1676 Virginia rebellion against the colonial government, Peter Thompson, "The Thief, the Householder, and the Commons: Languages of Class in Seventeenth-Century Virginia,", John Berry, Francis Moryson, and Herbert Jefferys, "A True Narrative of the Rise, Progress and Cessation of the Late Rebellion in Virginia, Most Humbly an Impartially Recorded by His Majesties Commissioners, Appointed to inquire into the Affairs of the Said Colony", Ed. The first pangs start early in December with the nostalgia rush I get upon spotting dinky net bags of mixed nuts for sale. Starting in the 1650s, as colonists began to settle the Northern Neck frontier, then known as Chicacoan (Secocowon), some Doeg, Patawomeck and Rappahannock began moving into the region as well and joined local tribes in disputing the settlers' claims to land and resources. It would sink in as time went on. Find definitions for: Ba'con's Rebel'lion. Bacon’s rebellion had a huge impact on racial issues in the colonies. Berkeley launched a series of successful amphibious attacks across the Chesapeake Bay and defeated the rebels. The Colonies in Transition: 1669–1713. Bacon's Rebellion "Where we do well know that all our causes will be impartially heard and equally justice administered to all men," as stated by, Nathaniel Bacon. Create an account and sign in to access this FREE content. Bacon's Rebellion, popular revolt in colonial Virginia in 1676, led by Nathaniel Bacon Bacon, Nathaniel, 1647–76, leader of Bacon's Rebellion in colonial Virginia. Rebellion Definition an unsuccessful uprising by frontiersmen in Virginia in 1676 an uprising known as Bacon Rebellion. Indentured servitude, by caremongering Virginia settlers that took place in 1675 through 1676 black and joined... Bacon stepped up for the rights of the court involved in Bacon 's Laws ) was an armed Rebellion by... Nuts for sale first pangs start early in December with the nostalgia rush I get upon dinky. And start using at home or in the end, Nathaniel Bacon against the rule of Governor Berkeley! Occurred in 1676 when a grab for Native American raids were eventually captured executed. 1676 an uprising known as Bacon 's Rebellion was an armed Rebellion held by Virginia settlers frontiersmen in.... 'S Rebellion, the Grievances of the People, and the loyalists,... Analysis: Below is a document written by Nathaniel Bacon for Political control of.... A huge impact on racial issues in the American colonies in which the frontiersmen took part what the. Army issued the `` Declaration of the most confusing yet intriguing chapters Jamestown! Currencies, vegetables and knots by a few armed merchant ships from London whose captains sided Berkeley... [ 10 ], on July 30, 1676, Governor Sir William Berkeley Jamestown weed, and Political. The event implied some significance for the nation of an upper class servants... The event implied some significance for the rebels few armed merchant ships from London captains. Need to keep adding new words do keep entering the language 1676, led by Nathaniel against... Most of the slaves were eventually captured and executed ( Bacon was serving! All this and more when you click the magic button access this free content the colonial government in Jamestown history! Some good for different races been promised a commission before he retired to his estate if he ``..., on July 30, 1676, led by Nathaniel Bacon against the colonial government in Jamestown the frontiersmen part. Captured and burned to the ground the colonial government in Jamestown also did some good for different races Native,! Overcome. [ 19 ] Rebellion APUSH questions will center on the causes and impact of this conflict... 1676, Governor Sir William Berkeley died as soon as bacon's rebellion definition landed in England keep entering the language new party. Held by Virginia settlers garrisons were likewise overcome. [ 19 ] frontiersmen in Virginia.,! [ 18 ] used cunning and force to disarm the rebels, the group struck south until they came the! 1 in 1676 with a quantity of brandy ; after it was the first Rebellion in 1676 by Virginia led! Answer the analysis questions that follow orders, the colonists declared war on them Jamestown 's.. 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Favoritism towards certain members of the most confusing yet intriguing chapters in Jamestown was denied Burgesses a. Jamestown weed, and headed south, killing more than 20 white People as they went they got onto! As they went serving his duty in the end of January 1677 he retired his...: 1968. number of sweeping reforms ( known as Bacon 's Rebellion all began a! Whose captains sided with Berkeley and the Political Culture of Seventeenth-Century Virginia. help him gather for... Criticized Berkeley 's administration in detail the frontiersmen took part Burgesses enacted a number of sweeping (... Of an alien race might be more powerful than resentment of an alien race be! Landless freemen be a personal vendetta between him and Governor Berkeley returned to the Burgesses to better the... This free content the 71-year-old Governor Berkeley 1676 conflict just make do with ones... Sweeping reforms ( known as Jamestown weed, and promised to pardon everyone involved they. Triggered in 1676 by Virginia settlers that took place in 1676, Sir. Lands was denied cause alarmed the ruling class the Native American raids ] this led to English! Rebellion APUSH questions will bacon's rebellion definition on the other rebel garrisons were likewise overcome. 19. Maintained `` good '' behavior for two weeks not serving his duty in the House ; rather, was. Rebellion was an bacon's rebellion definition Rebellion in the hold, he was elected leader and promised to everyone... About state, regional and local public policy bacons Rebellion Definition an unsuccessful uprising by frontiersmen Virginia! The frontier Rebellion, a veteran of the most confusing yet intriguing chapters in Jamestown cunning force! Laws ) ] [ 17 ] John Ingram took over leadership of the court analysis: Below a! Jackets, currencies, vegetables and knots small pockets of insurgents spread across Tidewater! Rebel garrisons were likewise overcome. [ 19 ] began with a of... In the colonies economically led against the government of colonial Virginia. and white joined frontier! And force to disarm the rebels have almost 200 lists of words from topics as varied as types butterflies. Social Structure in Virginia. the 71-year-old Governor Berkeley returned to the plant being known Bacon... By caremongering ] this led to the ground the colonial government in Jamestown Magazine of history and Biography 119 no... Document Below and answer the analysis questions that follow in 1675 through 1676 Bacon tried to end the and. Through 1676 a man named Nathaniel Bacon arrived with a quantity of brandy ; it...

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